The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has verified that dark, seasonal streaks that have appeared on Mars' surface come from briny water flows.
RT : 28 Sep 2015
© NASA / Greg Shirah / Handout / Reuters
For the first time, NASA has confirmed the existence of liquid water on the surface of Mars, according to new research announced Monday. The finding stems from data and analysis by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has verified that dark, seasonal streaks that have appeared on Mars' surface come from briny water flows.
The moment a dry river bed fills with water in a drought stricken district of India has been filmed by an ecstatic local.
Crowds of people scream with delight as water surges downstream in the video posted to Facebook on September 8 by Bmd Fayaz. Dusty ground is quickly replaced by swirling pools of water, the first time the Kalavapalli River in Anantapur has been full in 20 years according to Mr Fayaz.
The district of Anantapur is regularly drought affected and records on average less than 34 rainy days a year according to the India Meteorological Department. The dry conditions at Anantapur were so dire in August of this year that villagers had taken to placing traditional drought stones called karavu rallu in a bid to bring rain, the Deccan Chronicle reports.
Mr Range Gowda, an 85-year-old farmer, said the drought stones were moved in a bullock cart to the outskirts of a nearby village to encourage rain to the region. World News
Amanda Froelich : Natural Blaze : 12 Aug 2015
How does it work?
Based on natural processes, electrons are harvested from the soil and electricity is produced while plants continue to grow! It might sound too good to be true, but it absolutely is not.
As Next Nature shares, the theory behind the Plant-e system is simple. When a plant creates food using photosynthesis, a large portion of the organic matter generated is actually excreted by the roots into the soil. That same organic matter then gets consumed by micro-organisms living in the soil, which release electrons as a byproduct of this consumption. By placing an electrode near the roots, it then becomes easy to harvest this waste energy and turn it into electricity.
In addition, the plants are left unharmed during the entire process. In fact, tests show that the plants will continue to grow normally in the presence of electrodes, providing a constant source of power day and night. Combined with lamps powered by salt water, off-grid locations may have access to sustainable energy sooner than predicted!
At present, a prototype green roof utilizing this technology is already being developed and tested in the Netherlands. If all goes well, the Plant-e team hopes to utilize this system to harvest a significant amount of energy - maybe even enough to power a house. At present, they have been able to use the technology to generate enough energy to power a cell phone - but time will no doubt allow the company to perfect its process.
The amount of renewable energy sources being developed is astonishing; perhaps very soon in the near future technologies like solar and wind power may be merged with a system like this, completely eliminating humanity's dependence on fossil fuels.
Alisa Tang : Reuters : 02 Aug 2015
Solar driven desalination at Marina Barrage, Singapore
Fifty years ago Singapore had to ration water, and its smelly rivers were devoid of fish and choked with waste from shipbuilding, pig farms and toilets that emptied directly into streams.
But it's a very different story today. The world's most densely populated country now collects rainwater from two-thirds of its land, recycles wastewater and is even developing technology that mimics human kidneys to desalinate seawater.
"In about a lifetime, we have transformed Singapore," said George Madhavan, an engineer who has worked for the national PUB water agency for 30 years and is now communications director. "It's not rocket science - it is more political will ... The key success factor is really government - the leadership to pull different agencies together to come up with a plan ..."
As governments around the world wrestle with water crises from droughts to floods, many are looking to the tiny Asian city-state of Singapore for solutions. In many countries, a flood prevention agency focuses on quickly draining away storm water, while another manages drinking water. In Singapore, PUB "manages the entire water loop", Madhavan told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
Its aim is to capture every drop of rain it can and recycle as much used water as possible. "That means that ideally, we don't sell you water. We rent you water. We take it back, we clean it. We're like a laundry service. Then you can multiply your supply of water many, many times," Madhavan said. "The water that you drink today is the same water that dinosaurs drank. We don't create or destroy water. It just goes around. So we are using engineering to shorten the loop."
Read more at: source
Scientists discover near-infrared light turbocharges chemical reactions providing cellular energy
Clare Wilson : New Scientist : 10 Jul 2015
It sounds too good to be true. Shining red light on skin or cells in a dish gives an instant energy boost that could help heal wounds, relieve pain and perhaps help male infertility and other medical conditions. The curious healing effect has been known for decades - researchers have been investigating its use in eye injuries since 2002 - but why it works has been a mystery. It turns out the explanation could be simple and yet strange: the red light seems to alter the physical properties of water, which turbocharges the chemical reactions that provide a cell's energy. The revelation has come from work led by Andrei Sommer of the University of Ulm in Germany.
The effect on cells of near-infrared light, which has a wavelength of 670 nanometres, was first reported 40 years ago. The light causes mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, to produce more ATP, a compound that provides the cell's energy. Until now, the best explanation was that an important respiration enzyme called cytochrome C is affected by the near-infrared energy, but we now know that it doesn't absorb light at quite the right frequency.
Thinner than water
The work from Sommer's team now points at the water within the cell. Normally the layer of water next to any solid object has high surface tension, making it viscous. "It's like molasses," says Sommer. His team found that when surface layers of water are illuminated with the red light, it increases the distance between each water molecule, making the liquid become "runnier".
Mitochondria are powered by an enzyme bound into their membranes. It spins like a molecular turbine, and being surrounded by runnier water should make it turn more easily, generating more ATP. Because it is hard to measure water inside a living cell, the team measured the effect of near-infrared light on thin layers of water by examining the friction on a diamond probe as it pushed through water and into a metal block (see picture above). Illuminating the water cut the force needed to push in the probe by 72 per cent.
"It's highly significant," says Horst-Dieter Försterling of the Philipp University of Marburg in Germany. "This is the first explanation of how the light might work."
Healing with light
Other research groups are investigating this phenomenon as a way to speed up the healing of skin wounds and to repair burns to the eye. It may also be able to reduce pain and inflammation in tissues underneath the skin. Others are investigating whether red light shone into mice's heads using fibre optics can help with Parkinson's disease.
A better understanding of how red light affects cells should make it easier to expand its medical uses, says Sommer. "If we start from an incorrect model then everything is trial and error." One of the next applications could be in helping couples undergoing IVF because of problems with male fertility. Some men's sperm do not have enough energy to fertilise an egg in a lab, even though they only have to swim 1 millimetre to reach it, says IVF doctor Friedrich Gagsteiger of the Fertility Centre in Ulm.
Gagsteiger has previously investigated other ways of giving sperm more oomph, such as using caffeine - which does make them swim faster but also seems to be toxic. Gagsteiger is now starting tests of irradiating sperm with the near-infrared light before fertilisation. "We hope this will increase the chance of the sperm finding the eggs," he says.
Journal reference: Scientific Reports, DOI: 10.1038/srep12029
Groundbreaking new documentary offers real solutions for our food security and environmental troubles
“All we need to live a good life surrounds us. Sun, wind, people, buildings, stones, sea, birds, plants. Cooperation with all these things brings harmony. Opposition brings disaster and chaos.” ~ Bill Mollison, co-developer of permaculture.
Unfortunately, instead of cooperating with nature, we’ve been in conflict since the industrial revolution. Scientists and researchers have been sounding the alarm about our path of ecological disaster for years. While the word “sustainability” generally evokes images of deprivation and damage control, permaculture approaches ecological balance from a stance of leaving a positive footprint, instead of no footprint at all.
The idea is beautifully captured by Inhabit, where individuals and groups who are “walking the permaculture talk” are profiled throughout the documentary. Ben Falk is once such person. Founder of Whole System Design Permaculture Research Farm in Vermont, United States and author of The Resilient Farm and Homestead, Falk has created what many consider a small slice of paradise.
The design of the farm is a far cry from traditional agriculture, the former being a type of strip mining more than anything else. Trees, land, plants and animals work together in permaculture, supporting ultimate well-being for everything and everyone involved. Falk helped the process along by creating swales (marshy depressions between ridges) to collect water and revitalize areas of land that were essentially barren. Before long, plant life began to thrive, creating another habitat and food source for animals and humans alike. By working with the natural design and water flow of the property, along with grazing animals and native plants, Falk was able to build a living ecosystem that not only regenerated the land, but also provides exceptional crop yield compared to conventional farming — without the use of harmful pesticides or toxins. Granted, many of us are not quite at the point where we can move out to the country and create our very own bucolic oasis. Even so, the advantage of permaculture is that it can be applied to any situation — rural, urban or suburban.
Examples like Eric Toensmeier, co-author of Edible Forest Gardens and manager of Paradise Lot, a 1/10th acre permaculture educational garden in the heart of Massachusetts, demonstrate that suburbia is an excellent place for permaculture. Growing over 70 perennial greens and 40 different kinds of fruit, Toensmeier observed the bare backyard lot for a year before planting the garden in order to gain an understanding of the patterns of sun, wind and shade. The house on the property also utilizes a composting toilet, which provides rich soil for the plants and creates a closed-loop cycle of regeneration.
The documentary highlights the fact that in New York City alone, there are one million buildings with 38,256 acres of rooftops, which are ripe for permaculture development. The possibilities are truly endless.
Another solution to the problem of storm water is to construct a rain garden. A teenager involved in the project describes how an old gas station was turned into a lush landscape, simply by diverting water from roadways during storms and structurally altering the land for the most efficient use of the water. The end result is a thriving garden of trees and plants which had previously been a wasteland.
Permaculture can also be taken out into the forest. Faced with an overabundance of cut wood, one man decided to use decomposition in his favor — by starting a shiitake mushroom farm with the logs. He then introduced ducks and geese into the mix to keep the slugs that eat mushrooms at bay. Again, all the elements work seamlessly in natural harmony to support one another.
Inhabit director Emmett Brennan leaves us with this final thought: “Humanity is more than ever threatened by its own actions; we hear a lot about the need to minimize footprints and to reduce our impact. But what if our footprints were beneficial? What if we could meet human needs while increasing the health and well-being of our planet? This is the premise behind permaculture – a design process based on the replication of patterns found in nature. Inhabit is on the growing edge of media and cinema, presenting solutions to issues of food, water, medicine, governance, and more, and providing an impressive introduction to the permaculture worldview. The film illuminates the interdependence of all life and it presents an array of projects and people within this growing movement. “
Inhabit: A Permaculture Perspective ~ Trailer ‘Inhabit provides an intimate look at permaculture peoples and practices ranging from rural, suburban, and urban landscapes.’
Jason Kornwitz : Phys.org : 19 May 2015
Five Northeastern University student-researchers have worked to address the worldwide water crisis, designing a solar-powered desalination system that produces potable ocean water.
They created the device for their senior capstone project, which was supervised by mechanical and industrial engineering professor Mohammad Taslim. Team members comprised Eric Anderson, Jon Moll, Dave Rapp, Murphy Rutledge, and Ryan Wasserman, all E'15. In their project report, the students pointed to the urgent need to solve the global water shortage: Some 750 million people lack access to clean water, according to water.org, and approximately 840,000 people die each year from a water related disease. Indeed, the water crisis represents the greatest risk facing the world today.
"We wanted to work on this project precisely because of the world's water problem," said Wasserman, who recently graduated with his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. "Developing nations like Haiti need a cost-effective method for obtaining usable water without power input."
The team's desalination system consists of a parabolic mirror, a copper heating pipe, and two tanks—a storage tank and a condenser tanked filled with cold water. Here's how it works: A user pours a small jug of salt water into the pipe. The mirror reflects sunlight onto the pipe, causing the water to evaporate. This process creates water vapor, which in turn flows through a condenser coil located inside the condenser tank. The resulting potable water drips from the bottom of the condenser tank into the storage tank, leaving the salt behind in the pipe.
In tests, the system produced one gallon of potable water per day. While comparable products on the market produce a fraction of this quantity, Wasserman plans to fine-tune the prototype before considering its marketability.
The prototype's design, he noted, was shaped by his co-op experience with Instron, the maker of materials-testing equipment, and QinetiQ North America, the defense technology company. "Both these co-op jobs were influential," Wasserman said, adding that he recently landed a full-time job with QinetiQ. "I took in a lot of general knowledge that I was able to apply to the assembly of the system."
Taslim underscored Wasserman's sentiments, saying that capstone represents the culmination of five years of hard work in class and on co-op. "During their senior year, students put all their engineering knowledge to work by going through the entire design process from A to Z to bring an idea to reality in a fairly short time," he said. "This is a real-life experience for them so they can join the engineering world prepared."
Have you ever wanted to breathe underwater? You may soon have your chance. A group of scientists from the University of Southern Denmark have developed a crystalline material that absorbs oxygen from the surrounding environment, both water and air, and stores it for future use.
The aptly named " Aquaman Crystal " uses cobalt to work its magic, and it doesn't need a lot — just a few grains provides enough oxygen for the first breath. As the research team notes , because the material can continually absorb oxygen from the water, a diver would only need to bring a tiny amount underwater in order to breathe without a tank.
"It is also interesting that the material can absorb and release oxygen many times without losing the ability," said Christine McKenzie, one of the scientists involved with the project. "It is like dipping a sponge in water, squeezing the water out of it and repeating the process over and over again."
The crystalline material changes color when absorbing or releasing oxygen. Crystals are black when they are saturated with oxygen and pink when the oxygen has been released again.
Source: The University of Southern Denmark
It has uses beyond diving, too.
The scientists note that the material can also be used to help lung patients who breathe with the help of an oxygen tank
"When the substance is saturated with oxygen, it can be compared to an oxygen tank containing pure oxygen under pressure — the difference is that this material can hold three times as much oxygen," McKenzie said. Oxygen tanks are bulky and heavy, and though there are smaller ones for use outside the home, they're still an inconvenience for those who need them to breathe properly.
The atmospheric oxygen content, temperature and pressure all affect the time required for the material to absorb oxygen; it can take mere seconds or up to a few days to work. But the university emphasizes that its potential uses are myriad — cars that use fuel cells, for example, need a regulated oxygen supply.
Though there's no set timeline for the material to be converted for commercial use, the possibility is nevertheless exciting. Get ready to make like Aquaman, everyone.
13 April 2015 : Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen
“We have discovered the substance calcium perchlorate in the soil and, under the right conditions, it absorbs water vapour from the atmosphere. Our measurements from the Curiosity rover’s weather monitoring station show that these conditions exist at night and just after sunrise in the winter. Based on measurements of humidity and the temperature at a height of 1.6 meters and at the surface of the planet, we can estimate the amount of water that is absorbed. When night falls, some of the water vapour in the atmosphere condenses on the planet surface as frost, but calcium perchlorate is very absorbent and it forms a brine with the water, so the freezing point is lowered and the frost can turn into a liquid. The soil is porous, so what we are seeing is that the water seeps down through the soil. Over time, other salts may also dissolve in the soil and now that they are liquid, they can move and precipitate elsewhere under the surface.” explains Morten Bo Madsen, associate professor and head of the Mars Group at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen.
Riverbed and enormous lake
The researchers believe that Gale Crater was a large lake between 3.5 and 2.7 billion years ago. Mount Sharp, which is now an approximately five kilometer tall mountain in the middle of the crater, was probably formed by deposits from the crater and the surrounding area. (Credit: NASA/JPL/Caltech/ESA/DLR/MSSS)
Observations by the Mars probe’s stereo camera have previously shown areas characteristic of old riverbed with rounded pepples that clearly show that a long time ago there was flowing, running water with a depth of up to one meter. Now the new close-up images taken by the rover all the way en route to Mount Sharp show that there are expanses of sedimentary deposits, lying as ‘plates’ one above the other and leaning a bit toward Mount Sharp.
The rest of this article can be read at : http://www.nbi.ku.dk/english/news/news15/mars-might-have-liquid-water/
qz.com : 23 Mar 2015
I© Reuters/Amit Dave : Water scarcity has begun early in India.
In 1985, a 28-year-old man from Uttar Pradesh quit his government job, left his family and arrived in the dead of the night at a small village in Rajasthan's Alwar district.
Rajendra Singh, along with four companions from the Tarun Bharat Sangh, a non-profit that traces its origins to the University of Rajasthan, wanted to work in the hinterland. The initial idea was to establish clinics.
"Maybe it was some social chromosomes that fired my imagination to do something useful," Singh said in an interview. "I was a government servant in Jaipur, fed up with just sending statistics to officials." It look him a few months before finding his life's mission—and it took an ancient innovation, a fast disappearing traditional technology, to help him transform the lives of thousands of villagers in one of India's most arid regions.
© Tarun Bharat Sangh Singh has brought water back to some 1,000 villages.
On March 20, Singh was awarded the 2015 Stockholm Water Prize, sometimes described as the Nobel prize for water.
"Rajendra Singh did not insist with the clinics," the Stockholm International Water Institute, which awards the prize, said in a statement. "Instead, and with the help of the villagers, he set out to build johads, or traditional earthen dams. Two decades after Rajendra Singh arrived in Rajasthan, 8,600 johads and other structures to collect water had been built," it observed. "Water had been brought back to a 1,000 villages across the state."
This article can be read in its entirety at : http://www.sott.net/article/294253-An-ancient-technology-is-helping-Indias-water-man-save-thousands-of-parched-villages
Christina Benjaminsen : Gemini : 27 Jan 2015
© Thor Nielsen/SINTEF
When biologist Netzer (left), who specialises in bioprocesses, met electrochemist Colmenares, whose field is
water purification, they came up with the idea of a practical, microbial, energy-generating water purification system.
Today their demonstration plant is up and running.
Researchers in Trondheim have succeeded in getting bacteria to power a fuel cell. The "fuel" used is wastewater, and the products of the process are pure water droplets and electricity.
This is an environmentally-friendly process for the purification of water derived from industrial processes and suchlike", says SINTEF researcher Luis Cesar Colmenares, who is running the project together with his colleague Roman Netzer. "It also generates small amounts of electricity - in practice enough to drive a small fan, a sensor or a light-emitting diode", he says.
In the future, the researchers hope to scale up this energy generation to enable the same energy to be used to power the water purification process, which commonly consists of many stages, often involving mechanical and energy-demanding decontamination steps at its outset.
Nature's own generator
The biological fuel cell is powered by entirely natural processes - with the help of living micro-organisms.
"In simple terms, this type of fuel cell works because the bacteria consume the waste materials found in the water", explains Colmenares. "As they eat, the bacteria produce electrons and protons. The voltage that arises between these particles generates energy that we can exploit. Since the waste in the wastewater (organic material) is consumed and thus removed, the water itself becomes purified", he says.
The electrons produced at the anode migrate via an external circuit and generate electricity. The protons produced at the same time migrate through the membrane. When the electrons are reunited at the cathode, they react with the oxygen to produce water and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide (also used to bleach hair) is used as a component in the water purification process. The fuel cell requires no electricity supply.
You can read the article in its entirety at :
The first SPICAM (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) instrument was built for the Russian Martian orbiter Mars 96, which was lost due to an accident in the rocket launcher. The new updated version of the instrument was built with the participation of the Space Research Institute as part of the agreement between RosCosmos and the French space agency CNES for the Mars Express orbiter. The apparatus was launched on June 2, 2003 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome using a Russian Soyuz rocket launcher with a Fregat propulsion stage. At the end of December 2003, Mars Express entered a near-Mars orbit and since then has been operating successfully, collecting data on the planet and its surroundings.
Staff of the Space Research Institute and MIPT, including Alexander Trokhimovsky, Anna Fyodorova, Oleg Korablyov and Alexander Rodin, together with their colleagues from the French laboratory LATMOS and NASA’s Goddard Center, have analysed a mass of data obtained by observing water vapour in Mars’ atmosphere using an infrared spectrometer that is part of the SPICAM instrument over a period of five Martian years (about 10 Earth years as a year on Mars is equal to 1.88 Earth years).
Conditions on Mars – low temperatures and low atmospheric pressure – do not allow water to exist in liquid form in open reservoirs as it would on Earth. However, on Mars, there is a powerful layer of permafrost, with large reserves of frozen water concentrated at the polar caps. There is water vapour in the atmosphere, although at very low levels compared to the quantities experienced hereon Earth. If the entire volume of water in the atmosphere was to be spread evenly over the surface of the planet, the thickness of the water layer would not exceed 10-20 microns, while on Earth such a layer would be thousands of times thicker.
Data from the SPICAM experiment has allowed scientists to create a picture of the annual cycle of water vapour concentration variation in the atmosphere. Scientists have been observing the atmosphere during missions to Mars since the end of the 1970s in order to make the picture more precise, as well as traceits variability. The content of water vapour in the atmosphere reaches a maximum level of 60-70 microns of released water in the northern regions during the summer season. The summer maximum in the southern hemisphere is significantly lower – about 20 microns. The scientists have also established a significant, by 5-10 microns, reduction in the concentration of water vapour during global sandstorms, which is probably connected to the removal of water vapour from the atmosphere due to adsorption processes and condensation on surfaces.
“This research, based on one of the longest periods of monitoring of the Martian climate, has made an important contribution to the understanding of the Martian hydrological cycle – the most important of the climate mechanisms which could potentially support the existence of biological activity on the planet,” said co-author of the research Alexander Rodin, deputy head of the Infrared Spectroscopy of Planetary Atmospheres Laboratory at MIPT and senior scientific researcher at the Space Research Institute.
This report was compiled by the Information policy service of RosCosmos with the participation of the press departments of the Space Research Institute(RAS) and MIPT. http://mipt.ru/en/news/water_vapour_in_martian_atmosphere_201412
Amazing Water & Sound Experiment #2 : brusspup
Ever since I created the first version of this video a year ago I've been wanting to try it again with more water and better lighting / footage. This is a really fun project and when you first see the results, chances are your jaw will drop. The main thing to keep in mind for this project is that you need a camera that shoots 24 fps.
The effect that you are seeing can't be seen with the naked eye. The effect only works through the camera. However, there is a version of the project you can do where the effect would be visible with the naked eye. For that project, you'd have to use a strobe light.
For this project you'll need:
A powered speaker
Soft rubber hose
Tone generating software
24 fps camera
Run the rubber hose down past the speaker so that the hose touches the speaker. Leave about 1 or 2 inches of the hose hanging past the bottom of the speaker. Secure the hose to the speaker with tape or whatever works best for you. The goal is to make sure the hose is touching the actual speaker so that when the speaker produces sound (vibrates) it will vibrate the hose.
Set up your camera and switch it to 24 fps. The higher the shutter speed the better the results. But also keep in the mind that the higher your shutter speed, the more light you need. Run an audio cable from your computer to the speaker. Set your tone generating software to 24hz and hit play.Turn on the water. Now look through the camera and watch the magic begin. If you want the water to look like it's moving backward set the frequency to 23hz. If you want to look like it's moving forward in slow motion set it to 25hz.
Mark Prigg : Daily Mail, UK : Thu, 12 Jun 2014
The presence of liquid water on the surface is what makes our 'blue planet' habitable, and scientists have long been trying to figure out just how much water may be cycling between Earth's surface and interior reservoirs through plate tectonics. They now believe reservoirs 400 miles under the surface hold the key.
* Ingredients for water are bound up in rock deep in the Earth's mantle
* Scientists claim the find may represent the planet's largest water reservoir
* It is believed to cover most of the U.S - 400 miles below the surface
* Researchers will now carry out further tests to discover if the water wraps around the entire planet
The Earth's largest expanse of water isn't on the surface of the planet, but instead is buried deep within its mantle, researchers have found. They claim the ingredients for water are bound up in deep rocks, and scientists believe the discovery may represent the planet's largest water reservoir. Deep pockets of magma were found using seismic waves beneath North America, and this magma is said to be a clear sign of water. So far, researchers claim they only have evidence the water sits beneath the U.S., but they plan to carry out further tests to see if it wraps around the entire planet.
The presence of liquid water on the surface is what makes our 'blue planet' habitable, and scientists have long been trying to figure out just how much water may be cycling between Earth's surface and interior reservoirs through plate tectonics.
Northwestern geophysicist Steve Jacobsen and University of New Mexico seismologist Brandon Schmandt say the findings, to be published June 13 in the journal Science, will aid scientists in understanding how the Earth formed, what its current composition and inner workings are and how much water is trapped in mantle rock.
'Geological processes on the Earth's surface, such as earthquakes or erupting volcanoes, are an expression of what is going on inside the Earth, out of our sight,' said Jacobsen, a co-author of the paper 'I think we are finally seeing evidence for a whole-Earth water cycle, which may help explain the vast amount of liquid water on the surface of our habitable planet. 'Scientists have been looking for this missing deep water for decades.'
Scientists have long speculated that water is trapped in a rocky layer of the Earth's mantle located between the lower mantle and upper mantle, at depths between 250 miles and 410 miles. Jacobsen and Schmandt are the first to provide direct evidence that there may be water in this area of the mantle, known as the 'transition zone,' on a regional scale. The region extends across most of the interior of the United States.
Schmandt and Jacobsen's findings build on a discovery reported in March in the journal Nature in which scientists discovered a piece of the mineral ringwoodite inside a diamond brought up from a depth of 400 miles by a volcano in Brazil. That tiny piece of ringwoodite - the only sample in existence from within the Earth - contained a surprising amount of water bound in solid form in the mineral.
Read the whole story at : http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2656635/Forget-Oceans-researchers-Earths-biggest-water-reservoir-BENEATH-United-States.html
Author: Ben Davidson ('Suspicious Observer' : See also Ben's latest video below)
In 1986, some scientists laughed as other scientists seriously pondered the existence of water on Mars. Today we know that there is ice, and even the potential for liquid water on the surface of Mars. That news made headlines, especially with the newest rover sending back close-up images and data from direct samples. The vast majority of relevant and more-surprising information on the topic of extraplanetary water has managed to go under the radar. Additionally, breakthroughs in extreme-environment chemistry, astronomy, physics, and more have not yet been expressly interconnected to draw new hypothetical inferences about the nature of the universe, and the abundance of life.
In STARWATER, an educational documentary outlining the relevant research about water outside earth, we examine the wide range of places to find water, and why this is likely to be true everywhere. Would you believe that we have proof of water on every planet? We discovered permanent ice near the poles of Mercury, many moons of Jupiter and Saturn are icy spheres with liquid oceans beneath the surface, the centers of Neptune and Uranus are icy materials, and Pluto is mostly made of water ice.
That’s right, earth does not have the only liquid water oceans in the solar system, and Pluto is a ball of frozen water. It gets better… We found water vapor in sunspots, in massive quantities in pre-planetary and pre-stellar nebulae, and surrounding black holes. We have even discovered some exoplanets that appear to have watery atmospheres, based on spectral emission. Surrounding our solar system, and other stars as well, we find a pseudo-shell of rocks and ice that mark the boundary of the solar wind. This icy shell explains a good deal of the water found in our solar system, and likely found in others. The solar wind has been discovered to contain nearly every known element, a startling revelation about elemental production, but it is mostly comprised of hydrogen and hydrogen ions.
Recent breakthroughs have shown that the solar wind can liberate oxygen trapped in space rocks, moons, planets, etc., and then combine with that oxygen to form water. This discovery came within weeks of another one- that interplanetary dust carries space water, and potentially, organic materials, down to all materials in the solar system. Why should it stop at our neighborhood? It shouldn’t, and neither should it stop at the solar wind characteristics of our star or its ability to radiologically create water from the rocks.
NASA has discovered that Earth’s upper ionosphere erupts enormous amounts of oxygen during impact from coronal mass ejections (CME) from the sun. This oxygen does not need to be liberated from rocks; it’s “ready to go” and has an abundance of solar wind particles in the impacting CME with which to create water.
What do these breakthroughs tell us? Our star is a raw-materials distribution center for everything touched by its solar wind. Rocky bodies are going to have water, and are more likely to have oxygen-rich atmospheres for the same reason of oxygen liberation. Those oxygen-rich atmospheres are conceivably the best method for water production in the known universe; our planet’s reaction to the solar hydrogen is to toss out a shield of oxygen.
You can read the rest of this article at : http://wavechronicle.com/wave/?p=1151
The papers, scientists, discoveries, and revelations are explored in the STARWATER series, available for members at Suspicious0bservers.org, but the research and resources to private material are always made free for everyone here.
This section is for interesting items which are brought to my attention but which do not merit a separate article.
I welcome your comments, questions or suggestions on any topics you wish to contribute to this section.