SAR arcs look like auroras, but they are not. They are the glow of heat energy leaking into the upper atmosphere from Earth's ring current system–a donut-shaped circuit carrying millions of amps around our planet. During the Nov. 5th geomagnetic storm, these red arcs were observed as far south as Texas and California.
Auroras were observed as well -- "and they were INSANE," says Janne Maj Nagelsen, who watched the display from Stamnes, Vaksdal, Norway:
Auroras are caused by charged particles raining from space down upon Earth's atmosphere. Unlike SAR arcs, which are pure red, auroras can have a rich and stunning variety of colors. Both phenomena may be photographed on Dec. 1, 2023, when a Cannibal CME is expected to hit Earth.